Introduction to Pattern Matching
Most of the processing in Haskell is done by pattern matching. It's a powerful syntax that allows you to break up objects into useful pieces that you can use in your code.
Pattern Matching on Lists
You can use the
: syntax to break up a list into various
parts as shown below:
-- pattern match on list w/ no elements (base case) func  = print "Done!" -- pattern matching on list w/ at least 1 element (recursive step) func (x:xs) = do print x func xs -- this one assumes at least 2 elements, and now I can -- use x1 and x2 in the body func [x] = print x -- different base case for when list has 1 element func (x1:x2:xs) = do print x1 print x2 func xs -- now I can use the lst variable, which maps to the whole list func lst@(x:xs) = do print lst func xs
Here, func takes in a single list and breaks it up into
head of the list (
x) and the
are variables that you can then use in your code.
(x:xs) syntax only matches against lists that have at
least 1 item, since it needs to map
x to the first
element in the list (
xs in this case becomes
In the case that you need to match no elements, you can
use the empty list (
) as the pattern itself, as shown in
You can also keep a map to the entire list by using the
syntax as shown in the code, so you don't have to reconstruct
the list again using
You can find more information on pattern matching in this article on Haskell syntax
Recursive Data Types
Recursive Data Types are simply data types that can store a nested version of themselves continuously. Like recursion of any form, there must be a base case and a recursive step.
For example, if I wanted to make a basic nested dictionary structure, my base case would be simple key->single-value pair. However, the recursive case would be the key mapping to another dictionary type, which itself could be another nesting or just a simple value.
Here's how such a data type would look like:
-- simple 1-1 mapping dictionary, this just stores one -- key-value pair data NestedDictionary k v = Pair k v | Nested k (NestedDictionary k v) deriving (Show) -- usage let simple_dict = Nested 1 (Pair 2 3)
Pair to be the base case and
Nested to be the
recursive one. It stores yet another
which could be more Pairs or Nested types.
You can find more information on this under the types and typeclasses section of this article